Post Translational Modifications play a key role in many cellular processes and are modifications that occur on a protein after the mRNA has been translated into a protein. There are a number of modifications as listed below.
- Acetylation - Acetylation is any chemical reaction that adds an acetyl chemical group
- Glycosylation - Glycosylation is the reaction catalysed by glycosyltransferases, which adds carbohydrates site-specifically to another molecule
- Methylation - Methylation is any chemical reaction that adds a methyl chemical group (CH3, sometimes abbreviated in chemical structures as Me)
- Neddylation - Neddylation is a post-translational modification process. It is
analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of reaction scheme and enzyme
- Nitrosylation - Nitrosylation is any chemical reaction that adds a nitrosyl group (NO).
S-nitrosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins
- Phosphorylation - Phosphorylation is the enzymatic process through which a phosphate group is added via an ester bond
- PolyADP-ribosylation - polymers of ADP-ribose (poly(adenosinediphosphate-ribose)) are covalently attached to proteins by PAR polymerase enzymes
- Prenylation - Prenylation is the post-translational modification process in which
either a farnesyl group, as in farnesylation, or a geranyl-geranyl group
- Sumoylation - Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process. It is
analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of the reaction scheme and enzyme
- Ubiquitylation - Ubiquitylation is the post-translational modification process by which
ubiquitin is attached via an isopeptide bond to lysine residues on a