Protein Modifications

Post Translational Modifications play a key role in many cellular processes and are modifications that occur on a protein after the mRNA has been translated into a protein. There are a number of modifications as listed below.

  • Acetylation - Acetylation is any chemical reaction that adds an acetyl chemical group
  • Glycosylation - Glycosylation is the reaction catalysed by glycosyltransferases, which adds carbohydrates site-specifically to another molecule
  • Methylation - Methylation is any chemical reaction that adds a methyl chemical group (CH3, sometimes abbreviated in chemical structures as Me)
  • Neddylation - Neddylation is a post-translational modification process. It is analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of reaction scheme and enzyme classes used
  • Nitrosylation - Nitrosylation is any chemical reaction that adds a nitrosyl group (NO). S-nitrosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins
  • Phosphorylation - Phosphorylation is the enzymatic process through which a phosphate group is added via an ester bond
  • PolyADP-ribosylation - polymers of ADP-ribose (poly(adenosinediphosphate-ribose)) are covalently attached to proteins by PAR polymerase enzymes
  • Prenylation - Prenylation is the post-translational modification process in which either a farnesyl group, as in farnesylation, or a geranyl-geranyl group
  • Sumoylation - Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process. It is analogous to ubiquitylation in terms of the reaction scheme and enzyme classes used
  • Ubiquitylation - Ubiquitylation is the post-translational modification process by which ubiquitin is attached via an isopeptide bond to lysine residues on a protein